HeartDhamma

SN II 12.23 Causes for Liberation

Upanisa Sutta

 

Residing at Sāvatthi.

 

“I say that it is by knowing and seeing, monks,

That there comes to be the stilling of distractions,

Not by not knowing and not seeing.[1]

 

Knowing and seeing what?

 

(1) These are shapes,

These are shapes manifesting,

These are shapes passing away.[2]

 

(2) These are felt experiences,

These are experiences manifesting,

These are experiences passing away.

 

(3) These are concepts,

These are concepts manifesting,

These are concepts passing away.

 

(4) These are mental activities,

These are mental activities manifesting,

These are mental activities passing away.

 

(5) This is consciousness,

This is consciousness manifesting,

This is consciousness passing away.

 

Knowing and seeing in this way monks,

There is the stilling of distractions.[3]

 

[Stillness to Lack of Awareness]

 

But monks, I say

In this stillness,

this very knowledge of stilling comes from a cause,

It is not independent.[4]

 

(1) What is the cause for the knowledge of the stilling?

Release should be answered.

 

But this release comes from a cause,

It is not independent. [5]

 

(2) What is the cause for release?

Letting go should be answered. [6]

 

But this letting go comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(3) What is the cause for letting go?

Disengagement should be answered.

 

But this disengagement come from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(4) What is the cause of disengagement?

Discernment should be answered. [7]

 

But this discernment comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(5) What is the cause of discernment?

Mental collectedness should be answered. [8]

 

But this mental collectedness comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(6) What is the cause for mental collectedness?

Happiness should be answered.[9]

 

But this happiness comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(7) What is the cause for happiness?

Calm should be answered.[10]

 

But this calm comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(8) What is the cause for calm?

Joy should be answered.

 

But this joy comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(9) What is the cause for joy?

Relief should be answered.[11]

 

But this relief comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(10) What is the cause for relief?

Confidence should be answered.[12]

 

But this confidence comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(11) What is the cause of confidence?

Trouble should be answered.[13]

 

But this trouble comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(12) What is the cause of trouble?

Renewal of being should be answered. [14]

 

But this renewal of being comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(13) What is the cause of renewal of being?

Identity should be answered. [15]

 

But this identity come from a cause,

They are not independent.

 

(14) What is the cause of identity?

Attachments should be answered. [16]

 

But these attachments come from a cause,

They are not independent.

 

(15) What is the cause for attachments?

Discontent should be answered.[17]

 

But this discontent comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(16) What is the cause of discontent?

All felt experiences should be answered.

 

But all of these felt experiences come from a condition,

They are not independent.

 

(17) What is the cause of all felt experiences?

Sensory contact should be answered.

 

But this sensory contact comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(18) What is the cause of sensory contact?

The six senses should be answered.

 

But these six senses come from a cause,

They are not independent.

 

(19) What is the cause of the six senses?

Mind and matter should be answered.

 

But this mind and matter comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(20) What is the cause of mind and matter?

Consciousness should be answered.

 

But this consciousness comes from a cause,

It is not independent.

 

(21) What is the cause of consciousness?

Mental activities should be answered.

 

But these mental activities come from a cause,

They are not independent.

 

(22) What is the cause of mental activities? [18]

(23) Lack of discernment should be answered.

 

 

[Lack of Discernment to Stillness]

 

In this way monks,

 

(1) Because of lack of discernment,

there arise mental activities;

(2) Because of mental activities,

there arises consciousness;

(3) Because of consciousness,

there arise mind and matter;

(4) Because of mind and matter,

there arise the six senses;

(5) Because of the six senses,

there arises sensory contact;

(6) Because of sensory contact,

there arise all felt experiences;

(7) Because of all felt experiences,

there arises discontent;

(8) Because of discontent,

there arises attachments;

(9) Because of attachments,

there arises identity;

(10) Because of identity,

there arises renewal of being; [19]

(11) Because of renewal of being,

there arises trouble;

 

(12) Because of trouble,

there arises confidence;

(13) Because of confidence,

there arises relief;

(14) Because of relief,

there arises joy;

(15) Because of joy,

there arises calmness;

(16) Because of calmness,

there arises happiness;

(17) Because of happiness,

there arises collectedness;

(18) Because of collectedness,

there arises discernment;

(19) Because of discernment,

there arises disengagement;

(20) Because of disengagement,

there arises letting go;

(21) Because of letting go,

there arises release;

(22) Because of release,

there arises the knowledge of Stillness. (23)

 

[Mountain Rain Analogy]

 

Just as when it pours down heavily on the mountain tops,

That water rushes down, filling the main valleys and gorges;

The main valleys and gorges being full, they fill the streams;

The streams being full, they fill the creeks;

The creeks being full, they fill the rivers;

The rivers being full, they fill the estuaries;

The estuaries being full, they fill the great ocean.

 

In the same way monks;

 

(1) Lack of discernment produces mental activities;

(2) Mental activities produce consciousness;

(3) Consciousness produces mind and matter;

(4) Mind and matter produce the six senses;

(5) The six senses produce sensory contact;

(6) Sensory contact produces all felt experiences;

(7) Felt experiences produce discontent;

(8) Discontent produces attachments;

(9) Attachments produce identity;

(10) Identity produces renewal of being; [20]

(11) Renewal of being produces trouble;

 

(12) Trouble produces confidence;

(13) Confidence produces relief;

(14) Relief produces joy;

(15) Joy produces calmness;

(16) Calmness produces happiness;

(17) Happiness produces collectedness;

(18) Collectedness produces discernment;

(19) Discernment produces disengagement;

(20) Disengagement produces letting go;

(21) Letting go produces release;

(22) Release produces the experience of Stillness. (23)

 

 

[1] “Jānato ahaṃ, bhikkhave, passato  āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi, no ajānato no apassato.

[2] Iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo.

[3] Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, jānato evaṃ passato āsavānaṃ khayo hoti.

[4] Yampissa taṃ, bhikkhave, khayasmiṃ khayeñāṇaṃ, tampi saupanisaṃ vadāmi, no anupanisaṃ.

[5] Kā ca, bhikkhave, khayeñāṇassa upanisā? ‘Vimuttī’tissa vacanīyaṃ. Vimuttimpāhaṃ, bhikkhave, saupanisaṃ vadāmi, no anupanisaṃ.

[6] Virāga

[7] Yathābhūtañāṇadassana

[8] Samādhi

[9] Sukha

[10] Passadhi

[11] Pāmojja: Gladness, relief

[12] Saddhā

[13] Dukkha

[14] Jāti: Lit.: Birth (Rebirth), Practically: This is taking action in the physical plane. It can also be understood as the birth of every moment, of every conditioned processes (Saṅkhāra), their generation. Kamma. Blind action.

[15] Bhavo: Mental conditioning.

[16] Upādāna: Accumulating, holding on. This accumulating happens because of ‘not letting go’ (upa-adāna).

[17] Taṇhā: Lit.: Thirst. Practically: Discontent, dissatisfaction. (Longing for something that is not; Disliking something that is.)

[18] Saṅkhāra: Built-in conditionings, automated processes.

[19] Birth of Kamma every moment.

[20] Birth of Kamma every moment.

This is a gift of Dhamma

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