HeartDhamma

AN IV 94 Learning Calm and Clarity (3)

Tatiyasamādhi Sutta [1]

 

“Monks, there are four kinds of people living in this world. 

 

What are they?

 

Here monks,

(1) Some people are skilled at calming their mind internally,

But they lack the higher wisdom

of seeing mental states with clarity.

 

(2) Some people are skilled in the higher wisdom

of seeing mental states with clarity,

But lack [the ability to] calm their mind internally.

 

(3) Some people are unskilled in both

calming their mind internally,

And the higher wisdom of seeing mental states with clarity.

 

(4) Some people are skilled in both

calming their mind internally,

And the higher wisdom of seeing mental states with clarity.

 

[1. Skilled in Calm]

 

(1) Concerning those who are skilled

at calming their own mind,

But lack the higher wisdom in mental states;

 

They should approach anyone who is skilled

in higher wisdom of mental states and ask:

 

‘Friend,

How should mental states be observed? [2]

How should mental states be understood?

How should mental states be seen with clarity? [3]

 

This person will explain according to

their own experience and understanding: [4]

 

‘Friend,

This is how mental states should be observed,

This is how they should be understood,

This is how they should be seen with clarity.

 

After some time,

they become skilled at both

calming their mind internally,

and the higher wisdom in mental states.

 

[2. Skilled in Clarity]

 

(2) Concerning those who are skilled in the higher wisdom

 of seeing mental states with clarity

but lack [the ability of] calming their mind internally;

 

They should approach anyone

who is skilled in calming their own mind and ask:

 

‘Friend,

How should the mind be stilled? [5]

How should the mind be made to rest? [6]

How should the mind be unified? [7]

How should the mind be composed?  [8]

 

This person will explain according to

their own experience and understanding:

 

‘Friend,

This is how the mind should be stilled.

This is how the mind should be made to rest.

This is how the mind should be unified.

This is how the mind should be composed.

 

After some time,

they become skilled at both

calming their mind internally,

and the higher wisdom in mental states.

 

[3. Skilled in Neither]

 

(3) Concerning those who are unskilled in both

calming their mind internally

and the higher wisdom of seeing mental states with clarity.

 

They should approach anyone who is skilled in both

calming their mind internally;

and the higher wisdom in mental states and ask:

 

‘Friend,

how should the mind be stilled?

How should the mind be made to rest?

How should the mind be unified?

How should the mind be composed?

 

‘Friend, how should mental states be understood?

How should mental states be handled?

How should mental states be seen with clarity?

 

This person will explain according to

their own experience and understanding:

 

‘Friend, this is how the mind should be stilled.

This is how the mind should be made to rest.

This is how the mind should be unified.

This is how the mind should be composed.

 

This is how mental states should be observed.

This is how they should be understood.

This is how they should be seen with clarity.’

 

After some time,

they become skilled at both

calming their mind internally,

and the higher wisdom in mental states.

 

[4. Skilled in Both]

 

(4) Concerning those who are skilled in both

calming their mind internally

and the higher wisdom of seeing mental states with clarity;

 

Making use of these wholesome qualities,

they should devote themselves further

until the complete stilling of mental agitation.

 

These are the four kinds of people living in this world monks.

 

 

 

[1] Interesting that the pāḷi name for these suttas be ‘Samādhi’.

[2] ‘kathaṁ nu kho, āvuso, saṅkhārā daṭṭhabbā? Kathaṁ saṅkhārā sammasitabbā? Kathaṁ saṅkhārā vipassitabbā’ti?   PED  Sammasita [pp. of sammasati] grasped, understood, mastered. It seems as though ‘dhammā’ in ‘adhipaññadhammāvipassanāya,’which I translate as mental states, is here used interchangeably with the word ‘saṅkhārā’ here. Possible translations: mental activities, processes, phenomena…

[3] Bhante Sujato: “Reverend, how should conditions be seen? How should they be comprehended? How should they be discerned?’” \\ Ṭhāṇissaro Bhante: “How should fabrications be regarded? How should they be investigated? How should they be seen with insight?’” \\ F.L. Woodward: “Pray, your reverence, how are the activities to be regarded? How are the activities to be understood? How are the activities to be seen into?” \\ The clarity of higher wisdom, noble wisdom, the wisdom that understands mental states. Note here that the rendering of vipassanā as ‘insight’ would be quite incongruous since one can only imagine with difficulty that mental states ‘be insighted’ or to ‘insight’ mental states… Rather, they can be seen or observed with clarity or clear understanding and discernment.

[4] Tassa so yathādiṭṭhaṁ yathāviditaṁ byākaroti.

[5] ‘kathaṁ nu kho … cittaṁ saṇṭhapetabbaṁ? … sannisādetabbaṁ? … ekodi kātabbaṁ?  … samādahātabban’ti?  PED Saṇṭhapeti & °ṭhāpeti [Caus. of santiṭṭhati] 1. to settle, to establish — 2. to call to order. — 3. to adjust, fold up.

[6] I take this as the combination of saṁ + nisīdati (sannisīdati). Variant: sannisādetabbaṁ → sanniyādetabbaṁ (sya-all) Sannisinna [pp. of sannisīdati] 1. sitting down together; — 2. (having become) settled, established. PED Sannisīdati [saṁ+nisīdati] 1. (lit.) to sink down, to settle. — 2. (fig.) to subside, to become quiet— Caus. sannisādeti to make quiet, to calm. — Caus. II. sannisīdāpeti to cause to halt J iv.258.— pp. sannisinna.]

[7] I would like to point out this connection between the word ‘ekodi’ which in the Concise Dic. is translated as ‘withdrawn.’ This parallel sheds some light around the interwovenness of the words ekodi, ‘viveka’ which usually means ‘detachment’ or seclusion and the word samādhi. (Ekodi, Viveka and Samādhi). This mental unity, which also refers to samādhi (cittass’ekaggatā) is this very detachment or withdrawal or seclusion. Concise – Ekodi: adj. woven into one’, integrated, unified; withdrawn, apart. Variant: cittaṁ ekodi kātabbaṁ → ekodikattabbaṁ (sya-all, pts1ed) 

[8] Kathaṁ cittaṁ samādahātabban’ti? From samādahati. saṁ + ādahati1. Interestingly, the Buddha already mentions ‘mental unity’ as ‘ekodi.’ It seems rather unlikely that he would simply use the word samādahati to explain again the same concept. This word which is closely related to the word samādhi must surely refer to at least a slightly different aspect of the ‘samatha’ training. Here in the PED, we find that one possible translation in direct relation to our context (cittaṃ samādahati) would be ‘to compose the mind.’ Unsurprisingly, we again find reference to the forceful concept of ‘concentration’ which is a classic interpretation of a great number of paḷi words. It seems clearer that the overuse of the word ‘concentration’ for so many pāḷi terms really comes from a great divide from direct knowledge of these teachings and lack of proper vocabulary. By now, the word ‘concentration’ should at least be attributed to only one pāḷi word to stop its infectious spread across the Pāḷi-English vocabulary. The profuse misuse of this word and its unbridled propagation is keeping the true potential of this precious teaching behind a veil. // Samādahati [saṁ+ādahati1] to put together S i.169. jotiṁ s. to kindle a fire Vin iv.115; cittaṁ s. to compose the mind, concentrate… samādhiyati to be stayed, composed. // A few different variations: “How should the mind be gathered/put together/collected/stilled/stayed/composed…” Hard to choose, they all have truth and meaning to them. // Ādahati1 [ā + dahati1] to put down, put on, settle, fix Vism 289 (samaṁ ā.=samādahati). Cp. sam° and ādhiyati. // Dahati1 (dahate) [Sk. dadhāti to put down, set up; *dhe. See also dhātu] to put, place; take for (acc. or abl.), assume, claim, consider D i.92 (okkākaṁ pitāmahaṁ=ṭhapeti DA i.258) // I will stay close to my previous translations as with ‘collected’ since ā accentuates dahati, to handle, to uphold and saṃ + ādahati brings in the notion of togetherness which represents the experience of samādhi with fidelity. 

 

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