HeartDhamma

AN III 70 The Observance of the Ariyas

Uposatha Sutta

 

Thus have I heard—

At that time, the Awakened One resided in Sāvatthi

In the Eastern Ārāme, Migāra’s mother’s estate.

 

Then, Visākhā, Migāra’s mother,

on the event of the Uposatha observance,

went to the Awakened One

paid loving respects, and sat to the side.

 

The Buddha asked:

 

“Come now, Visākhā,

for what purpose have you come here in the middle of the day?”

 

[Visākhā]

“Bhante, today, I am observing the Uposatha.” [1]

 

[Three Kinds of Uposatha]

 

[The Buddha]

There are three kinds of Uposatha observances, Visākhā.

 

What are they?

 

(1) The farmer’s observance,

(2) The Nigaṇṭha’s observance,

(3) And the Ariyas’ observance. [2]

 

[1. The Farmer’s Observance]

 

What is the Farmer’s Observance?

 

In the evening, a farmer gathers his cows

back to the farm thinking:

 

‘Today, the cows have walked in such and such a field,

and they drank in such and such a creek;

Tomorrow, I will bring them in such and such a pasture,

and they will drink from such and such creek.’

 

In the same way, he would observe the Uposatha thinking:

 

‘I am hungry, I should eat such and such food,

or prepare such an such a meal;

Tomorrow, I will eat such and such food,

or prepare such and such a meal.

 

As a result of this,

 he spends his entire day,

with a mind sullen,

pulled

and filled by desires. [3]

 

This is the Uposatha observance of the farmer, Visākhā.

 

 

Observed in such a way, the farmer’s uposatha

does not yield abundant fruits,

it is not highly beneficial,

and neither does it shine,

it is neither vast nor pervasive. [4]

 

 

[2. The Nigaṇṭhas’ Observance]

 

What is the observance of the Nigaṇṭhas? [5]

 

There is a tradition of spiritual wanderers called the Nigaṇṭhas.

They instruct their followers, saying:

 

‘Come my dear, [6]

(1) Let go of all weapons and violence

towards all beings in the eastern direction,

farther than a hundred yojanas; [7]

(2) Let go of all weapons and violence

towards all beings in the western direction,

farther than a hundred yojanas;

(3) Let go of all weapons and violence

towards all beings in the northern direction,

farther than a hundred yojanas;

(4) Let go of all weapons and violence

towards all beings in the southern direction,

farther than a hundred yojanas.

 

 

Hence, they instruct kindness and compassion for some beings, [8]

but for others, not.

 

While observing the uposatha, they instruct their followers saying:

 

‘Come dear, rid yourself of all of your clothes and go about saying: [9]

 

‘I am not anywhere, belonging to anything,

Nor is there anything belonging to me anywhere at all.’ [10]

 

 

Although their parents know very well:

‘This is our child’

and so do they know very well:

‘These are my parents.’

 

Although their husband or wife and children know very well:

 

‘This is the one who provides for us and sustains us.’

and these know very well: [11]

‘These are my wife or husband and children.’

 

Although their servants, maids, helpers, and workers know very well:

‘This is our Lady or master’,

and they know very well:

‘These are our servants, maids, helpers and workers.’

 

 

Because of this,

at a time when they should be instructed on truthfulness,

They are instructed about pretending and falsehood. [12]

 

I say that such speech is not speaking truthfully.

 

 

And when the night draws to an end,

they take back their possessions and clothes

without anyone giving it back to them. [13]

 

I say that this is taking what is not theirs.

 

 

This is the uposatha observance of the Nigaṇṭhas, Visākhā.

 

 

Hence the Nigaṇṭhas’ observance

does not yield tremendous fruits,

it is not the most beneficial,

it is not luminous,

and it is not particularly vast nor pervasive.

 

 

[3. Uposatha of the Ariyas]

 

What, Visākhā, is the uposatha of the Ariyas?

 

[A. Recollections]

 

Impurities in the mind are cleansed by diligent practice, Visākhā. [14]

 

How is it so?

 

[I. Calling to Mind the Buddha]

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the Buddha in this way: [15]

 

“The Awakened One is an Arahant,

a fully awakened Buddha,

his knowledge and behavior are perfected,

he is the Exalted One,

the one who has understood the world,

the unequalled teacher of beings who seek to master themselves,

the teacher of Divine beings and humans,

he is the Buddha, the Auspicious One.

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind the Buddha,

the mind become clear and bright,

joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements. [16]

 

Just as the way to cleaning one’s dirty head is through diligent effort Visākhā. [17]

 

 

[Analogy of Cleaning One’s Head]

 

How is a dirty head cleansed by diligent effort?

 

By applying powder,

clay, water,

and by applying one’s own effort. [18]

 

This is how a dirty head is cleansed by diligent effort.

 

 

[Emphasizing this Joyful Recollection]

 

In the same way, impurities in the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the Buddha in this way:

 

‘The Awakened One is an Arahant,

a fully awakened Buddha,

his knowledge and behavior are perfected,

he is the Exalted One,

the one who has understood the world,

the unequalled teacher of beings who seek to master themselves,

the teacher of Divine beings and humans,

he is the Buddha, the Auspicious One.

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind the Buddha,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

 

Then one is called:

 

‘A wise follower who observes the Divine observance,

who lives in union with the Divine,

and by one’s devotion to the Divine,

ones mind becomes clear and bright,

and joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.’ [19]         

 

This is how the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

 

[II. Calling to Mind the Teaching]

 

The impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the Teaching in this way:

 

‘The teaching of the Awakened One is perfectly explained

directly visible,

timeless,

inviting,

uplifting,

to be experienced by the sages,

within oneself.’

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind the Buddha,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Just as the way to clean one’s dirty body is through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

 

[Analogy of Cleaning the Body]

 

How does one cleans one’s body through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

By using a scrub

cuṇṇam powder, water,

and by applying one’s own effort. [20]

 

This is how one cleans one’s dirty body through diligent effort, Visākhā.

 

[Emphasizing this Joyful Recollection]

 

In the same fashion, impurities in the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the Teaching in this way:

 

‘The teaching of the Awakened One is perfectly explained

directly visible,

timeless,

inviting,

uplifting,

To be experienced by the sages

within oneself.’

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind the Teaching,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Then one is called:

 

‘A wise follower who observes the observance of the Law of Goodness,

Who lives in union with the Law of Goodness,

and by one’s devotion to the Law of Goodness,

one’s mind becomes clear and bright,

and joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.’

 

 

This is how the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

[III. Calling to Mind the Community]

 

The impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the community in this way:

 

‘The community of the Awakened One’s practice is good,

The community of the Awakened One’s practice is straight,

The community of the Awakened One’s practice is logical,

The community of the Awakened One’s practice is meaningful.’

 

‘These are the four pairs of people, [21]

Together making eight types of individuals.’

 

‘This is the community of the Awakened One,

Such people are truly worthy of support,

worthy of hospitality,

worthy of offerings,

worthy of homage,

they are the unprecedented field of good kamma for this world.’

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind the community,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Just as the way to clean one’s dirty clothes is through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

[Analogy of Cleaning Clothes]

 

How does one clean one’s dirty clothes through diligent practice?

 

By applying heat

by adding baking soda,

cow dung, water

and by applying one’s own effort. [22]

 

This is how one cleans one’s dirty clothes through diligent effort.

 

[Emphasizing this Joyful Recollection]

 

In the same fashion, the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the community in this way:

 

‘The community of the Awakened One’s practice is good,

The community of the Awakened One’s practice is straight,

The community of the Awakened One’s practice is logical,

The community of the Awakened One’s practice is meaningful.’

 

‘These are the four pairs of people,

Together making eight types of individuals.’

 

‘This is the community of the Awakened One,

Such people are truly worthy of support,

worthy of hospitality,

worthy of offerings,

worthy of homage,

they are an unparalleled field of good kamma for this world.’

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind the community,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Then one is called:

 

‘A wise follower who observes the observance of the community,

Who lives in union with the community,

and by one’s devotion to the community,

one’s mind becomes clear and bright,

and joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.’

 

 

This is how the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

 

[IV. Calling to Mind Blameless Behavior]

 

The impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind their own blameless behavior in this way: [23]

 

Unbroken, unbreeched

constant, flawless,

liberating, recommended by the wise,

unspoiled and leading directly to samādhi.’ [24]

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind one’s own blameless behavior,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Just as the way to clean a dirty mirror is through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

 

[Analogy of Cleaning a Mirror]

 

How does one clean a dirty mirror through diligent effort?

 

By using sesame oil,

ashes and a brush [25]

and by applying one’s own effort.

 

This is how one cleans a dirty mirror by diligent effort.

 

[Emphasizing this Joyful Recollection]

 

In the same fashion, the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the community in this way:

 

Unbroken, unbreeched

constant, flawless,

liberating, recommended by the wise,

unspoiled and leading directly to samādhi.’

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind one’s own blameless behavior,

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Then one is called:

 

‘A wise follower who observes the observance of blameless behavior,

Who lives in union with blameless behavior,

and by one’s devotion to the blameless behavior,

one’s mind becomes clear and bright,

and joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.’

 

This is how the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

 

[V. Calling to Mind the Devas]

 

The impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the Devas in this way:

 

(1) There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings,

(2) There are the Thirty-three Devas,

(3) There are the Devas of Yāmā,

(4) There are Serene Devas,

(5) There are Creation-Loving Devas,

(6) There are Devas who wield power over creation,

(7) There are Devas of Radiant Bodies,

(8) There are Devas beyond this. [26]

 

It is because of their faith

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here

Such faith is also found in me. [27]

 

It is because of their virtue

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here

Such virtue is also found in me.

 

It is because of their learning

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here

Such learning is also found in me.

 

It is because of their generosity

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here

Such generosity is also found in me.

 

It is because of their discernment

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here

Such discernment is also found in me.

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind that the qualities of

faith, virtue

learning, generosity

and discernment

found in the Devas,

are also found within them, [28]

 

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Just as the way to clean tarnished gold is through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

[Analogy of Cleaning Gold]

 

How does one cleans tarnished gold is through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

By using a furnace,

salt, geruka chalk,

a blow pipe and tongs, [29]

and by applying one’s own effort.

 

This is how one cleans tarnished gold is through diligent effort Visākhā.

 

 

[Emphasizing this Joyful Recollection]

 

In the similar fashion, the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice Visākhā.

 

How?

 

Here, one who follows the path of the Ariyas

repeatedly calls to mind the Devas in this way:

 

(1) ‘There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings,

(2) There are the Thirty-three Devas,

(3) There are the Devas of Yāmā,

(4) There are Serene Devas,

(5) There are the Creation-Loving Devas,

(6) There are Devas who wield power over creation,

(7) There are Devas of Radiant Bodies,

(8) There are Devas beyond this.’

 

It is because of their faith

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here.

Such faith is also found in me.

 

It is because of their virtue

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here.

Such virtue is also found in me.

 

It is because of their learning

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here.

Such learning is also found in me.

 

It is because of their generosity

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here.

Such generosity is also found in me.

 

It is because of their discernment

That those Devas transmigrated and took birth here.

Such discernment is also found in me.

 

[Natural Samādhi]

 

When one repeatedly calls to mind that the qualities of

faith, virtue

learning, generosity

and discernment

found in the Devas,

are also found within them,

 

the mind become clear and bright,

Then joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.

 

Then one is called:

 

‘A wise follower who observes the observance of the Devas,

Who lives in union with the Devas,

and by one’s devotion to the Devas,

one’s mind becomes clear and bright,

and joy wells up from within,

and the mind sheds its defilements.’

 

 

This is how the impurities of the mind are cleansed by diligent practice.

 

 

[B. Reflecting on Arahants Behavior]

 

Then Visākhā, a wise practitioner considers:

 

[I. Harming]

 

(1) “For as long as they live,

arahants discard the harming of living beings

and refrain from it. [30]

 

With neither stick nor sword

conscientious and benevolent, [31]

They live, empathetic to the welfare of other beings;

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

discard the harming of living beings

and refrain from it.

 

Let me live, with neither stick nor sword

conscientious and benevolent,

empathetic to the welfare of other beings;

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance. [32]

 

 

[II. Taking]

 

(2) For as long as they live,

arahants discard the taking of things which are not given

and refrain from it.

 

Taking only what is offered,

Expecting only what is offered.

They live without stealing, with inner purity,

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

discard the taking of things which are not given

and refrain from it.

 

Let me live, taking only what is offered,

expecting only what is offered.

without stealing, with inner purity,

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

 

[III. Sexuality]

 

(3) For as long as they live,

arahants discard the sexuality

and refrain from it.

 

Living with the Divine,

without another partner,

staying away from sexual intercourse,

the way of commonfolk.

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

discard the sexuality and refrain from it

Let me live with the Divine,

without another partner

staying away from sexual intercourse,

the way of commonfolk.

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

 

[IV. Untruthfulness]

 

(4) For as long as they live,

arahants discard the speaking of lies

and refrain from it.

 

They turn away from speaking lies, [33]

known to speak the truth,

Filled with truth,

firm and trustworthy,

Not a deceiver of the world.

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

discard the speaking of lies

 and refrain from it.

 

Let me turn away from speaking lies,

be known to speak the truth,

filled with truth,

firm and trustworthy,

not a deceiver of the world.

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

[V. Mind-Altering Substances]

 

(5) For as long as they live,

arahants discard the consumption of mind-altering substances

and refrain from it.

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

discard the consumption of mind-altering substances

 and refrain from it.

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

 

[VI. Eating at Improper Times]

 

(6) For as long as they live,

arahants eat one meal a day,

not eating in the evening,

they refrain from eating at unsuitable times.

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

eat one meal a day,

not eat in the evening,

and refrain from eating at unsuitable times.

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

[VII. Singing and Dancing]

 

(7) For as long as they live,

arahants refrain from dancing, singing,

listening to music,

seeing entertainment shows,

wearing necklaces, perfumes

and beautifying the body with cosmetics.

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

refrain from dancing, singing,

listening to music,

seeing entertainment shows,

wearing necklaces, perfumes

and beautifying the body with cosmetics.

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

[VIII. Luxurious Beds]

 

(8) For as long as they live,

arahants discard the use of elevated and luxurious beds and seats,

and refrain from them.

 

They sleep on small, low beds,

[close to the ground],

made of straw or natural stuffing.

 

Let me also, for this day and night,

discard the use of elevated and luxurious beds and seats,

and refrain from them.

 

Let me sleep on a small, low bed,

[close to the ground],

made of straw or natural stuffing.

 

For this observance day, I will emulate this quality of the awakened ones,

this will constitute part of my observance.

 

 

This is the uposatha of the Ariyas Visākhā.

 

 

This uposatha observance of the Ariyas

yields abundant fruits,

it is highly beneficial,

of refulgent brightness,

vast and pervasive.

 

 

[4. Just How Meritorious is This?]

 

And how does it bear such great fruits?

How is it so highly beneficial?

Just how is it of such refulgent brightness?

How is it so vast and pervasive?

 

Even if Visākhā, a person were to become the sole ruler and king

over these sixteen great nations overflowing with riches

The kingdoms of

Aṅga, Magadha,

Kāsi, Kosala,

Vajji, Malla,

Ceti, Vaṅga,

Kuru, Pañcala,

Maccha, Sūrasena,

Assaka, Avanti,

Gandhara, Kamboja, [34]

 

Compared to this uposatha observance complete in these eight components,

This is not even worth the least part of a sixteenth.

 

Why?

 

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss. [35]

 

[A. Devas of the Four Great Kings]

 

Fifty human years equal

but a single day and night for the Devas of the four great kings. [36]

 

There are thirty of such days in their month.

Twelve of such months in their year.

The Devas of the four great Kings’ lifespan is

five hundred such celestial year.

 

It is possible, Visākhā, that

a man or a woman here,

who has performed this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components will,

when their body gives out, after death,

be reborn instantly in the entourage of

the Devas of the Four Great Kings.

 

It was in reference to this that I said:

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss.

 

[B. The Thirty-Three Devas]

 

A hundred human years, Visākhā, equate

but a single day and night for the Devas of the Thirty-Three. [37]

 

There are thirty of such days in their month.

Twelve of such months in their year.

The Devas of the Thirty-threes’ lifespan is

a thousand of such celestial year.

 

It is possible, Visākhā, that

a man or a woman here,

who has performed this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components will,

when their body gives out, after death,

be reborn instantly in the entourage of

the Devas of the Thirty-threes.

 

It was in reference to this that I said:

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss.

 

[C. The Yāmā Devas]

 

Two hundred human years, Visākhā, equate

but a single day and night for the Devas of Yāmā. [38]

 

There are thirty of such days in their month.

Twelve of such months in their year.

The Devas of Yāmā’s lifespan is

two thousand such celestial year.

 

It is possible, Visākhā, that

a man or a woman here,

who has performed this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components will,

when their body gives out, after death,

be reborn instantly in the entourage of

 Yāmā’s Devas.

 

It was in reference to this that I said:

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss.

 

[D. The Serene Devas]

 

Four hundred human years, Visākhā, equate

but a single day and night for the Serene Devas. [39]

 

There are thirty of such days in their month.

Twelve of such months in their year.

The Serene Devas’ lifespan is

four thousand such celestial year.

 

It is possible, Visākhā, that

a man or a woman here,

who has performed this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components will,

when their body gives out, after death,

be reborn instantly in the entourage of

the Serene Devas.

 

It was in reference to this that I said:

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss.

 

[E. The Creation-Loving Devas]

 

Eight hundred human years, Visākhā, equate

but a single day and night for the Creation-Loving Devas. [40]

 

There are thirty of such days in their month.

Twelve of such months in their year.

The Creation-Loving Devas’ lifespan is

eight thousand such celestial year.

 

It is possible, Visākhā, that

a man or a woman here,

who has performed this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components will,

when their body gives out, after death,

be reborn instantly in the entourage of

the Creation-Loving Devas.

 

It was in reference to this that I said:

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss.

 

[F. The Devas Wielding Power over Creation]

 

Sixteen hundred human years, Visākhā, equate

but a single day and night for the Devas who wield power over creation. [41]

 

There are thirty of such days in their month.

Twelve of such months in their year.

The Devas who wield power over creation’s lifespan is

sixteen thousand such celestial year.

 

It is possible, Visākhā, that

a man or a woman here,

who has performed this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components will,

when their body gives out, after death,

be reborn instantly in the entourage of

the Devas who wield power over creation.

 

It was in reference to this that I said:

Human kingship is pitiful compared to divine bliss.

 

 

[End Verses]

 

“One should neither hurt the living

nor take what is offered not,

Neither speak falsehood,

            nor take intoxicants,

Mastering one’s sexual impulses,

not trespassing on one’s union with the Divine,

Without eating at night,

beyond the proper time frame.

 

Being without jewelery, cosmetics and perfumes,

Making this earth your bed, sleeping on a simple mat,

This uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components

brings one closer to the end of trouble,

as the Buddha explained. [42]

 

Both, the moon and the sun, so beautiful to look at,

their pervasive radiance all around

Banishing darkness while they traverse the skies,

Shining through space, illuminating the directions. [43]

 

Whatever wealth is possible to acquire for oneself,

Pearls and jewels, Lapiz lazuli and lucky charms,

Horn-gold or mountain-gold,

Even the best of haṭaka gold.

 

These are not worth one sixteenth

of this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components

Just as the moon’s radiance

surpasses the stars luster. [44]

 

Similarly that virtuous woman or man

who observes this uposatha observance,

complete in these eight components

become filled with the bliss of such bright actions,

blameless,

they are bound for the happiest states.” [45]

 

 

[1] “Uposathāhaṁ, bhante, ajja upavasāmī”ti.

[2] Gopālakuposatho, nigaṇṭhuposatho, ariyuposatho.

[3] So tena abhijjhāsahagatena cetasā divasaṁ atināmeti.

[4] na mahapphalo hoti na mahānisaṁso na mahājutiko na mahāvipphāro.

[5] “Nigaṇṭha (निगण्ठ) is clearly recognized as a Jain term is shown by the etymological explanation occasionally recorded in the Pāli commentaries, an etymology which is ascribed to the Jains and actually attested in their own tradition: “we do not have defilements which are like knots, we are free of the defilements of obstruction, hence the name Nigaṇṭha”.” (Pali Text Society: Journal vol. XXVI (jainism))

[6] ‘ehi tvaṁ, ambho purisa, ye puratthimāya disāya pāṇā paraṁ yojanasataṁ tesu daṇḍaṁ nikkhipāhi;

[7] One yojana is about 7 miles or 15 kilometers. This means, 1500 kms, in each direction. The exact reason for these instructions is unclear, as the Jains are usually well known for their practice of ahiṃsa, or strict non-violence. They are often seen carrying a broom to sweep away any insect on their path and wearing a mouth mask so to not breath micro-organisms.

[8]The words anuddayāya anukampāya are used here.

[9] sabbacelāni nikkhipitvā

[10] nāhaṁ kvacani kassaci kiñcanatasmiṁ, na ca mama kvacani katthaci kiñcanatatthī’ti Somewhat difficult passage to translate.   

[11] I am translating here, bridging towards more contemporary values of equality between genders, to fit our modern situation, although, this passage is clearly meant to be in line with the man’s role as the ‘supporter’ of the family and the wife and children as sustained by him…

[12] Iti yasmiṁ samaye sacce samādapetabbā musāvāde tasmiṁ samaye samādapenti.

[13] So tassā rattiyā accayena bhoge adinnaṁyeva paribhuñjati.

[14] Upakkiliṭṭhassa, visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. 

[15] Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako tathāgataṁ anussarati:

[16] Tassa tathāgataṁ anussarato cittaṁ pasīdati, pāmojjaṁ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. Once again, the Buddha makes it quite unmistakably clear that the mind gets cleansed through joy, this time by wholesome recollections. This is how the mind gets collected, unified in samādhi. He even adds, ‘this mind has abandoned the defilements’ (ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti.) It could not be clearer. 😊

[17] seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

[18] Kakkañca paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca udakañca paṭicca purisassa ca tajjaṁ vāyāmaṁ paṭicca,

[19] ‘ariyasāvako brahmuposathaṁ upavasati, brahmunā saddhiṁ saṁvasati, brahmañcassa ārabbha cittaṁ pasīdati, pāmojjaṁ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti’.  Again, the Buddha drives home the importance of this great passage, here, and for the entire length of this sutta onwards.

[20] Sottiñca paṭicca, cuṇṇañca paṭicca, udakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṁ vāyāmaṁ paṭicca.

[21] Having entered the path or become fully mature in the qualities pertaining to each level of release.

[22] Usmañca paṭicca, khārañca paṭicca, gomayañca paṭicca, udakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṁ vāyāmaṁ paṭicca.

[23] Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako attano sīlāni anussarati

[24] akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññuppasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṁvattanikāni. This is a classic stock passage, which, here, accentuates even further the connection of samādhi to wholesome mental sates, the very root of wholesome states, virtue.

[25] Telañca paṭicca, chārikañca paṭicca, vālaṇḍupakañca paṭicca,

[26] ‘santi devā cātumahārājikā, santi devā tāvatiṁsā, santi devā yāmā, santi devā tusitā, santi devā nimmānaratino, santi devā paranimmitavasavattino, santi devā brahmakāyikā, santi devā tatuttari. 

[27] Yathārūpāya saddhāya samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā saddhā saṁvijjati. 

[28] Tassa attano ca tāsañca devatānaṁ saddhañca sīlañca sutañca cāgañca paññañca anussarato

[29] Ukkañca paṭicca, loṇañca paṭicca, gerukañca paṭicca, nāḷikasaṇḍāsañca paṭicca,

[30] ‘yāvajīvaṁ arahanto pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭiviratā

[31] lajjī dayāpannā

[32] Imināpi aṅgena arahataṁ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.

[33] saccavādī saccasandhā

[34] Mahājanapadānaṁ. These were the sixteen kingdoms of the early Buddhist era. They were soon unified under one rule under the King Ajatasattu of Magadha and later the Maurian empire of the famous Buddhist King Aśoka.

[35] Kapaṇaṁ, visākhe, mānusakaṁ rajjaṁ dibbaṁ sukhaṁ upanidhāya.

[36] cātumahārājikānaṁ devānaṁ

[37] tāvatiṁsānaṁ devānaṁ

[38] yāmānaṁ devānaṁ

[39] tusitānaṁ devānaṁ

[40] nimmānaratīnaṁ devānaṁ

[41] paranimmitavasavattīnaṁ devānaṁ

[42] Etañhi aṭṭhaṅgikamāhuposathaṁ,

Buddhena dukkhantagunā pakāsitaṁ.

[43] Cando ca suriyo ca ubho sudassanā, Obhāsayaṁ anupariyanti yāvatā; Tamonudā te pana antalikkhagā, Nabhe pabhāsanti disāvirocanā.

[44] Aṭṭhaṅgupetassa uposathassa, Kalampi te nānubhavanti soḷasiṁ; Candappabhā tāragaṇā ca sabbe.

[45] Tasmā hi nārī ca naro ca sīlavā, Aṭṭhaṅgupetaṁ upavassuposathaṁ; Puññāni katvāna sukhudrayāni, Aninditā saggamupenti ṭhānan”ti.

This is a gift of Dhamma

All Sutta Translations by Ānanda are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.